Root Dynamic Regulation
There is much more to a plant than our eyes can see. This formation is hidden from our sight. It is like the tip of an iceberg. Beneath the soil surface there is a structure known as “the root system”. This portion of the plant often grows downwards with complex patterns and architecture. The roots included in this structure (tap root & adventitious) elongate through various soil types and structures. Their primary goal is to seek water and nutrients. Their principal functions are:
- Plant anchorage
Water and nutrients absorption (which are delivered to the rest of the plant through an internal vascular system).
On determined plant species, the roots are transformed into thick food reservoirs, which will be used by plants on demanding moments
The radicle or primary root is the first organ to emerge from a seed that has germinated. Many plants have one or more primary roots. Several lateral branches of smaller size then grow from the primary root, called secondary and tertiary roots. On secondary roots we will find the thinnest root prolongation called “Root Hairs”, mainly in charge of nutrients and water absorption. All the structures that form a root system is defined mainly by the type of plant, soil structure, and interaction between them.
The whole root system possesses an outstanding ability to discharge exudates. These are a variety of compounds released throughout the rhizosphere with a great diversity of physical and chemical properties. This exudation process depends on the general form of the plant species, microorganism presence, nutritional plant status, water and oxygen availability, development media and other growing conditions.The root exudates play an important role on root-microorganism symbiosis phenomenon. This leads to an impact on nutrients acquisition and more recently; it is considered as a key factor for plant adaptivity under determined conditions. Rhizosphere: is a longitudinal and radial gradient where the root expansion occurs during its growth, water acquisition, nutrients, exudation, and subsequence microorganism’s growth and interactions.
Nutrition and early root burn syndrome.
Plants are autotrophic organisms capable of using solar energy to synthetize all its compounds of carbon dioxide, water, macro and micronutrients. One of the most important aspects of the plant structure is that it has developed the root system to obtain nutrients from soil solutions. The root has several functions, principally to anchor and support the plant very firmly. Furthermore, nutrient and water absorption, hormone synthesis and food storage. The nutrients absorption is considered active until the nutrients are in the living part or vascular tissue. There are two ways of absorption: Passive, due to no energy being wasted or use of ATP molecules. Secondly, there is active, when energy is being consumed (ATP). This energy is coming from the respiration process using ATP enzymes, which gives the driving force for the ionic interchange. In this process there is malic and citric acid production that provides protons (H+). The mechanism of action is thought to be by an electrogenic pump that controls the active absorption of all the nutrients through the root.
A majority of the root system is not permanent, it’s in continuous renovation, constantly generating new roots. Only a few of the initial roots remain as part of the root system skeleton. They are covered with corky tissues that prevent their decomposition; however almost all secondary roots are renewed during the plant cycle. Most roots that are further from the stem and deeper in the soil die more easily. Also, the mortality rate increases as the plant gets older (maturity). This process is called “The plant Natural Death”. When growers observe a decrease in production or plant decomposition without apparent reasons, they usually do a soil nutrient analysis. They often think that the main cause is due to fertilization. Unless there is an extreme imbalance of nutrients, this factor cannot be considered the cause of the crop’s death.
While inspecting diseased plants and root systems. We found that they have been damaged by soil-borne pathogens. The root systems have a morphology disturbance, poor root development, twisted roots, low relation between roots and aeration, and root thickening caused by excess nutrients and deficiencies.
All these changes can lead to “Premature Root Exhaustion Syndrome” originated by the imbalance between the plants and the environment or the causative agents. The origin of this syndrome varies; it could also be caused by abiotic conditions such as temperature, humidity, solar radiation, hardness, or weak plants.
The symptoms in later stages of the plant can cause; a gradual decrease in larger fruit size production, decrease in cell wall thickness, color, and crop productive capacity. Symptoms can also lead to low sugar content, an increase of susceptibility to root rot, and an increase in fruit disease incidence.
To solve the presence of “Premature Root Exhaustion Syndrome” a balance of different aspect must be considered. Physiological: Stimulate a well-developed root system and growth. Biological: Inoculation of beneficial microorganisms. Physical: Changes in soil structure.
The growth and development of roots is also determined by the plant genetics, soil, and weather conditions. The water holding capacity and total available water in the soil must be taken into consideration when irrigating. Good aeration and infiltration must be present. Furthermore, an adequate supply of nutrients and conditions are important aspects for the root development.
Making an internal root management possible
Innovak Global is the first company to define the Roots Dynamic Regulation (RDR). Including a set of knowledge and practices. Also, by specific materials that allow an integral root management through metabolism and rhizosphere environment regulation. This has a direct effect on the plant’s nutrition, health, and productivity.
To be able to control the root processes, related not only with nutrition and rhizosphere conditions, but also with plant health aspects and regulation. This helps enhance the grower’s access to the forgotten or the rest of the iceberg. It allows to control on an integral way the factors that limit the optimal crop develop and its maximum yield: THE ROOT.
Tools to control the root development, activity and health.
Nutrisorb is a formulation that helps with the development of the roots and the nutrient absorption process. As a result, leading to better nutrient extraction from the soil solution and more efficient crop development.
Preliminary results from demonstration trial on Bell Pepper from Kono Farms in the
Coachella Valley, CA. 2014.
Crop: Green Bell Pepper
Treatment: Nutrisorb L and Promesol Ca
Dose: Nutrisorb L 1.25 gall/ac – Promesol Ca 2.5 gall/ac
Ca concentration showed on preliminary foliar analysis (Optimus range of Ca 0.9 to —)