Resistencia Sistémica 

The attack of insects and pathogens on plants has been a cause of concern in recent decades. That is why various studies have been carried out in order to know the mechanism of plants that allow them to defend themselves against them through a complex system that includes multiple levels of protection. The protection mechanisms that they have developed to defend themselves against biotic and abiotic factors are physical or chemical and constitutive or induced. Physical barriers consist of the composition and structure of the cuticle, trichomes, stomata, cell wall, among others. Chemical barriers consist of the production of tannins, terpenes, alkaloid resins (before the attack of a pathogen). The disadvantage of this form of defense lies in the response time, that is, it requires years of evolutionary modifications, generation of structural genes for the change in a physical or chemical barrier to occur.

Induced resistance is based on the recognition of the invader and the transduction of signals that activate the defenses. On many occasions, localizing the infection induces resistance against a wide spectrum of different pathogens by the plant. The induction of resistance against a pathogen is based mainly on transforming a compatible interaction into an incompatible one; that is, that the plant susceptible to disease becomes resistant. The inducers act on the plant preventing or delaying the entry of the pathogen and consequently limiting its activity in the infected tissue or organ and have no direct effect or specific activity on the phytopathogens. This form of protection is considered an efficient, durable and innocuous mechanism in the management of pathogens that cause plant diseases.

Innovative Concept

Depending on the type of inducing agent, there are two types of resistance induction: systemic induced resistance (RSI) and systemic acquired resistance (RSA). RSI can be activated by the presence, on plant tissue, of non-pathogenic organisms and wounds caused by herbivores, mimicking the presence of a pathogen to generate resistance by the presence of synthetic molecules deposited on plant organs, called abiotic induction.La RSA puede ser activada por la presencia, sobre el tejido vegetal, de organismos como hongos, virus, bacterias, nematodos e incluso insectos herbívoros, conocida esta como inducción biótica. Esta activación media la activación de reacciones defensivas en tejidos alejados de la zona afectada y está relacionada con la ruta del ácido salicílico (AS).

RSA can be activated by the presence, on plant tissue, of organisms such as fungi, viruses, bacteria, nematodes and even herbivorous insects, known as biotic induction. This activation mediates the activation of defensive reactions in tissues far from the affected area and is related to the salicylic acid (AS) pathway.

The signaling pathways of responses elicited by a biotic agent can be dependent both on salicylic acid, in association with the accumulation of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRP), and on jasmonic acid and ethylene. In contrast, the cascade of signals generated by an abiotic inducer only follows the jasmonic acid and ethylene pathway, called RSI.

Ethylene, Jasmonic acid (AJ), and salicylic acid (AS) are plant growth regulators with a well-documented role in the plant’s response to biotic stress (4).

Jasmonic acid route: it is originated by the plant after the damage produced by a pathogen, which can be a microorganism or an insect, and results in an increase in the production of resistance compounds, such as salicylic acid and ethylene. Among the stress situations that regulate it are injuries (mechanical or biotic), exposure to ozone, drought and attack by pathogens and pests.

Salicylic acid pathway (AS): it is an important signal that participates in the defense reactions of plants, it is part of the group of compounds synthesized in plants called phenolics, which contain a hydroxyl group attached to an aromatic ring in their chemical structure . AS is synthesized by the phenylpropanoid pathway and it binds to the enzyme catalase. Catalase generally protects the plant against oxidative stress caused by the presence of reactive oxygen species.

It is worth mentioning that the binding of AS with catalase inhibits its activity. Therefore, when AS accumulation is high and catalase activity is low, the level of reactive oxygen species remains high, inducing PR protein synthesis (2). Said proteins are a heterogeneous group of proteins that are induced in plants by infection with a pathogen. This is how AS plays an essential role in the signal transduction pathway that leads to the activation of genes that code for PR proteins and also for the establishment of the hypersensitive response (RH), known as programmed cell death, which is used to delimit the area of infection by a pathogen.

During the last decade, a way has been sought to accelerate the plant’s response to the attack of a pathogen and one of the alternatives for this problem could be the application of systemic resistance markers, which at the same time would generate a protection alternative. biological and environmental, as well as being compatible with current pathogen control methods.

ECCA Solutions

Inducer of resistance against diseases caused by Oomycetos

WHAT DOES THAT DO?

It prevents the attack and the incidence of foliar or vascular

AS IT DOES?

Prevent Up contains aromatic-type organic acids that induce the activity of proteins related to resistance to pathogens; increasing the defense capacity of crops.

BENEFITS

  • High level of control in blight, wilting and mildew.
  • Tool compatible with integrated disease management.
  • Environmentally safe.

Effect of the application of Prevent UP before the symptoms caused by the disease known as potato late blight appear, under natural conditions of infection. The commercial witness consists of the application of the following products:

TRATAMIENTO BIORRACIONALTESTIGO COMERCIAL
PREVENT UP

at dosis of 2, 3 and 4 L/ha

Mancozeb 2 kg/ ha + Chlorothalonil 2 L /ha
Propamocarb + Fluopicolide 2 L/ ha
Mancozeb 2 kg ha + Chlorothalonil 2 L/ha

BIBLIOGRAFIA

  1. Adie, B.A. Pérez-Pérez, J. Pérez-Pérez, M. Godoy, M. Sánchez-Serrano, J.J. Schmelz, E.A. y R. Solano. (2007). ABA is an essential signal for plant resistance to pathogens affecting JA biosynthesis and the activation of defences in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell. 19: 1665–1681
  2. Camarena-Gutiérrez, G., & Torre-Almaráz, R. D. L. (2007). Resistencia sistémica adquirida en plantas: estado actual. Revista Chapingo serie ciencias forestales y del ambiente, 13(2), 157-162.
  3. García, M. R. y Pérez, L. R. 2003. Fitoalexinas: mecanismo de defensa de las plantas. Revista Chapingo. Serie ciencias forestales y del ambiente 9(01):5-10.
  4. Lumba, S and Cutler, S. 2010. Plant nuclear hormone receptors: a role for small molecules in protein-protein interactions. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 26:445-469.
  5. Riveros, A. A. S. (2010). Inducción de resistencia en plantas. Interacción: planta-patógeno. Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura (IICA). 261 p.
  6. Vlot, A.C. D.F. Klessig. y S.W. Park. (2008). Systemic acquired resistance:
    the elusive signal(s). Current Opinion in Plant Biology. 11: 436–442.

Global Notes

National Export Award 2019

In September, Monterrey Nuevo León, Mexico, the 2019 National Export Award ceremony was held in which Innovak Global was the winner in the category

Large Agricultural Exporting Companies awarded by the Ministry of Economy for being synonymous with global competitiveness and engine of economic growth in the country and important generators of more and better jobs.

Congratulations to the entire Innovak family!

ITV Berries

Jacona, Michoacán was the headquarters of the ITV de Berries, which was attended by producers of Cranberry, Raspberry and Blackberry from the region to exchange experiences on the crops and participate in several conferences, among which the talk with Eng. Fernando Diez who came from Chile stands out to narrate his experiences in handling containerized blueberries.

The organization was also in charge of Corteva, Agrobelle and Invertúneles.

La organización también estuvo a cargo de Corteva, Agrobelle e Invertúneles.

Thanks to the attendees for joining us!

Launch of Crop Protection Line

Innovak Global presented its new Crop Protection line at a launch event attended by friends and clients of the company in Guadalajara, Jalisco. These are 5 new products: Rhizo TX, Cuvrek, Prevent Up, Biocinnafol and Biocrifol.

The Crop Protection line provides natural protection for your crops at the same time that it provides minimum security terms that allow you to obtain food without chemical residues; it is especially useful for handling resistors.

Thank you to those who accompanied us in this event for continuing to give us their trust!

World Avocado Congress (WAC)

Medellín, Colombia was the venue for the IX World Avocado Congress attended by leaders of the avocado industry. Innovak Global participated with a stand in which it provided information on the value offered for the avocado crop in both Mexico and Colombia. For the assistant team it was an honor, greetings to new and old friends!